Monday, December 30, 2019
The Rape Fantasies of a Fun Home Fun Home: A Family Tragicomic is a 2006 graphic memoir written by American cartoonist and memoirist Alison Bechdel. Alison began her career by illustrating and writing comic strips for Dykes to Watch Out which debuted in 1983. Alison Bechdel was an LGBT activist who tells her unraveling story recalling her early years about struggling with self-identity while coming to understand her father s enclosed identity as well. Contrary, Rape Fantasies was written and published by Margaret Atwood. Atwood is an Canadian poet and novelist who gained public attention by a collection of poems called Double Persephone in 1893. Many of Atwood s poems are inspired by myths and fairytales that sheds light on womenÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦A Feminine Man Is a Powerful Thing to Be. Alison s father is obsessed with decorating, he is seen at work reading a book called Architectural Digest. Decorating is his passion, and is the reason why his relationship with his chi ldren was so strained and damaged. Alison always felt like her dad put furniture and materialistic objects before the love and compassion a parent is suppose to show their children. Alison states And of course, my brothers and I were free labor. Dad considered us extensions of his own body, like precision robot arms (Bechdel, 9). Bruce was a perfectionist in every aspect. He insisted the vase of flowers to sit at a certain angle and that the picture on the wall hung just the way he liked. Bruce shows even more signs of zest when he yells at Alison because her neckline did not match her outfit. Something as simple as matching that most masculine men would not care about is one of Bruce s pet peeves. Bruce s erratic behavior is overwhelming for his family that they started to resent him for the way he treated them. I grew to resent the way my father treated his furniture like children, and his children like furniture (Bechdel, 14). The way Bruce treated his kids was child abandonment , the only time he deals with his children is when it comesShow MoreRelatedPost Colonial Perception on the Grass Is Singing4315 Words Ã |Ã 18 PagesGrass Is Singing The Grass Is Singing, first published in 1950, was an international success. The story focuses on Mary Turner, the wife of a farmer, who is found murdered on the porch of her home. After her body is found, we are taken back to her younger days and slowly discover what happened to her.Ã The background, location of this story is set in Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) in South Africa which has been drawn from Doris LessingÃ¢â¬â¢s own
Sunday, December 22, 2019
Cyber Warfare: The Next Frontier The year: 2015. The information age is well underway and is only gaining more power and force as time progresses. The many vast, intricate networks used for such things as communication, online shopping, business technologies and even online banking, are growing and metamorphosing into tools now utilized by not only the every-day consumer but rather political groups and individuals with extremist and even deadly intentions. Cyber warfare can be defined as politically inspired computer security hacking to achieve sabotage and/or espionage. Cyber warfare looks to seek and exploit weaknesses in a computer system with chaos and destruction ultimately in mind. Cyber warfare is increasingly described as the next battlefront. Conventional warfare (hand-to-hand combat) looks to be a thing of the past. Information systems and technologies are taking over the world and with it, the potential for global-sized destruction and political gain. As the global online community and its information sys tems are skyrocketing at alarming rates, so are the number of users and even governments looking for an edge over competitors and threats. Using technology the world is only beginning to understand, governments, terrorists, and individual actors are taking advantage of the lack of legislature, the unknown, and international and intrastate cooperation to wage a new kind of war. An emerging dichotomy remains, if it can be made, it can be hacked. Which begs theShow MoreRelatedCyber Warfare Is Not Fully Understood2407 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesCyber-warfare is a relatively new concept to the imagination, but its novelty should not belie its importance to be understood at all echelons of a command structure. It is an emerging reality, and its relevance is proportionate to the continuous global expansion and convergence of digital networks. The capabilities of cyber-warfighting strategies and tactics are extensive, and a need for a common language and understanding is necessary for cyber-wa rfighting capabilities. Within any culture, languageRead MoreCyber Security And Terrorism : Terrorism1521 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages9:30am-10:45am October 4, 2016 Cyber Security Terrorism In the 21st century, humans continue to advance technology at an incredibly fast rate, which also indicates we become more dependent of the technology. Keep in mind, with more technology being available, new threats emergeÃ¯ » ¿Ã¯ » ¿Ã¯ » ¿Ã¯ » ¿ constantly in the cyber-world. Everyday society seems to be integrating digitally more and more, meaning the US s infrastructure may be susceptible to attacks. Little is known about America s Cyber Security defenses, if anyRead MoreEssay Cyber Security Departments1894 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagessystems include transport systems, factory systems, power plant systems and water sanitation systems. This brings on the question of to what extent have governments developed their cyber security departments, what evidence is there of governmental involvement in malware attacks and why should governments be concerned about cyber security. Since these systems rely heavily on technology, governments have to consider them as high-risk targets not only for phy sical attacks, but also for computer malware attacksRead MoreEmergence of Globalization Phenomenon1521 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe essay will first explain the evolution of present ICTs and provide theoretical framework through theories of international relations. The implications on security sectors in term of weapon development and information operations will be discussed next. Finally various factors of modern ICTs having implicational for national and international security will be highlighted. The international communication phenomenon is not new and exist since humans learned to organize themselves and exchange ideasRead MoreThe Internet Its Effects and Its Future6120 Words Ã |Ã 25 Pagesgives you access to electronic mail for sending and receiving data, and file transfer for copying files from one computer to another. Telnet services allow you to establish connections with systems on the other side of the world as if they were just next door. This flood of information is a beautiful thing and it can only open the minds of society. With the explosion of the World Wide Web, anyone could publish his or her ideas to the world. Before, in order to be heard one would have to go throughRead More The Impact of the Internet on Society Essay5976 Words Ã |Ã 24 Pagesgives you access to electronic mail for sending and receiving data, and file transfer for copying files from one computer to another. Telnet services allow you to establish connections with systems on the other side of the world as if they were just next door. This flood of information is a beautiful thing and it can only open the minds of society. With the explosion of the World Wide Web, anyone could publish his or her ideas to the world. Before, in order to be heard one would have to go throughRead MoreSocial Media6807 Words Ã |Ã 28 Pagesfocused on building networking with other people through extravagant social means. The service allows users to share photos, passions, ideas, events, and their life with all whom they wish to accept into their current network. In an ever-growing cyber world consisting of an enormous market of services and platforms, social networking has risen to the top. It all started with the first spark of ingenuity in 1997 through a site called Six Degrees. Six Degrees gave people the ability to list theirRead MoreEssay about Wikileaks and Julian Assange3373 Words Ã |Ã 14 PagesstudentsÃ¢â¬â¢ Mathematic and Statistics Society at the same university (Dreyfus, 1997 ). According to Cohen (2010), it was during this time that Ã¢â¬Å"the seeds for Wikileaks were sownÃ¢â¬ (p. 32). In short, Assange is noted as one of outstanding individuals in cyber world. Just like his Wikileaks, Assange is now also facing set of legal threats. In Sweden, where WikileaksÃ¢â¬â¢ primary server is presumably placed due to this country Ã¢â¬Å"anonymity protection lawsÃ¢â¬ for internet users (Horgan, 2010, p. 17), Assange isRead MoreOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words Ã |Ã 656 Pagessciences that greatly enhanced our understandings of the natural world and made for major advances in medicine and health care were very often offset by the degradation of the global environment and massive spurts in excessive mortality brought on by warfare, famine, periodic genocidal onslaughts, and worldwide epidemics. In no previous epoch of history was war so vilified and peace so consciously pursued through the establishment of international organizations and diplomatic exchanges. Despite theseRead MoreContemporary Issues in Management Accounting211377 Words Ã |Ã 846 Pagesimportant role in the diffusion of modern practices of capital investment appraisal in the United Kingdom. He has been constantly open to the insights which advances in economic theory can provide into the accounting art, in many areas pushing at the frontiers of international knowledge in his own quiet way. In the area of costing, Michael has undoubtedly deepened our understandings of both conceptual and practical issues, in recent years providing a voice of reason amidst all the consultancy excitement
Saturday, December 14, 2019
In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s political climate, Congressman Anthony Wiener uploading obscene photos onto Twitter to Governor Chris Christie creating traffic jams by closing a main toll area and now, Donald Trump. Malcom Gladwell, an author who currently writes for the New Yorker, indicates in the Satire Paradox that satire should be taken seriously to create change, but then it wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be funny. Gladwell talks about how ineffective satire was for SNLÃ¢â¬â¢s sketches throughout the 2008 presidential campaign and notes in the Satire Paradox, Ã¢â¬Å"Lord help us if some other, even less qualified and more frightening political figure comes alongÃ¢â¬ (Gladwell). We will write a custom essay sample on Does Satire Influence Elections? or any similar topic only for you Order Now Now, Donald Trump is the forty-fifth President of the United States. In 2008, Sarah PalinÃ¢â¬â¢s lack of experience and communication skills provided SNL with a trove of political satire sketches. The satire of Palin gave a glimpse of what was to come should Senator John McCain and his running mate, Sarah Palin succeeded in contrast. During the presidential campaign of 2016, another work of satire by Saturday Night Live (SNL), created a parody of Donald Trump featuring Alec Baldwin. Alec BaldwinÃ¢â¬â¢s parody of Donald Trump was accurate. The characterization of Trump as thin skinned and extremely sensitive provided a glimpse of what was to come if he were to be elected as president of the United States. Satire proved effective to showcase the absurdity of Palin as vice president; however, as the political climate changes, satire loses its usefulness as seen in the 2016 presidential election. PalinsÃ¢â¬â¢ inexperience was apparent through FeyÃ¢â¬â¢s characterization on SNL which was an effective form of satire. Fey had an easy task mimicking Palin. Fey copied the clothes she wore, her hairstyle and wore identical frames for her eyewear. Throughout FeyÃ¢â¬â¢s mockery, she accurately portrayed Palin as unknowledgeable about AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s geography. Fey continued with PalinÃ¢â¬â¢s inability to be define the Bush Doctrine which is about the various foreign policy principles. It is important that leaders are knowledgeable about the country they chose to lead. This made the audience question if Palin was equipped to take over as president should something befall McCain. Palin did not have any foreign policy experience and America questioned whether Palin understood exactly what a vice president does. In 2008 when SNL parodied Sarah Palin during the presidential campaign, it was entertaining, but it also forced Americans to think of who they chose to represent them. Tina FeyÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"timely impersonationsÃ¢â¬ showed how unqualified Palin was suited for vice president (Esralew). It was hard to forget PalinÃ¢â¬â¢s interviews back in 2008. Her lack of knowledge and ignorance is seared in our memories. Although Palin was Governor of Alaska, she was unable to articulate any other experience that qualified her as vice president of the United States, let alone President. FeyÃ¢â¬â¢s parody of PalinsÃ¢â¬â¢ inexperience helps show the importance of public opinion on politics. According to Gladwell, a month before the election, Tina describes and mimics Ã¢â¬Å"Sarah PalinÃ¢â¬â¢s crazy accent, Ã¢â¬ËitÃ¢â¬â¢s a little bit of Fargo.Ã¢â¬â¢ She tried to base it on her friend PaulaÃ¢â¬â¢s Grandma who would say, Ã¢â¬ËOh, this and that and stuff like that'Ã¢â¬ It lacks specificity because Fey uses terms like Ã¢â¬Å"thisÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"stuffÃ¢â¬ to show PalinÃ¢â¬â¢s naivetÃ © in how she comes across. The focus remained on Palin, even though Senator McCain was the presidential candidate. The impact of FeyÃ¢â¬â¢s parody of Palin drew more criticism of Palin and as a result, many voters abandoned the GOP and voted for Obama. Sarah PalinÃ¢â¬â¢s communication skills were lacking, thus, highlighting her inability to prove that she was, indeed, qualified to become the next vice president of the United States. In her interviews, Palin appeared flummoxed in her responses. Palin had participated in two key interviews with ABC and CBS news outlets which allowed the public to see for themselves how uncomfortable and indecisive she appeared. She frequently paused throughout the interview as though she was trying to come up with an acceptable response. On September 11, 2008, Sarah Palin was interviewed by Charles Gibson. Gibson asked Palin, Ã¢â¬Å"What insight into Russian actions, particularly in the last couple of weeks, does the proximity of the state give you?Ã¢â¬â¢ Palin responds, Ã¢â¬ËTheyÃ¢â¬â¢re our next-door neighbors and you can actually see Russia from land here in Alaska'Ã¢â¬ (Gibson). It was apparent that she had not properly prepared for the interview and seemed overwhelmed with the grueling process of the campaign. She was hurting McCainÃ¢â¬â¢s chance at the presidency. SNLÃ¢â¬â¢s effective satire continued to put a negative light on Palin. Her interviews were cut back and appearances limited. After the Gibson interview, SNL quickly mocked her words and provided the one line that is still associated with Palin today, Ã¢â¬Å"I can see Russia from my House!Ã¢â¬ With the ongoing claims that Russia had interfered with the 2016 Presidential Election, Palin responded in a farcical manner and tweeted, Ã¢â¬Å"RussiaÃ¢â¬â¢s getting out of hand? So, says the defeated. Not to worryÃ¢â¬ ¦ remember I can keep an eye on them from hereÃ¢â¬ (Mazza). Gladwell seems to think Tina FeyÃ¢â¬â¢s mimicry was a failure, but as we knew, Ã¢â¬Å"Sarah Palin was not elected as vice president and has not held any public office since 2009Ã¢â¬ (Blu). SNLÃ¢â¬â¢s continued satire of Palin provoked Americans to pay attention. SNL satire was so effective in 2008 that it is still relevant now. The audience has to be receptive for satire to be effective; however, in 2016, during the Trump and Clinton presidential campaign, voters werenÃ¢â¬â¢t responding to the satire. Some conservatives do not watch SNL because the show has a liberal approach to politics. SNL used to be bi-partisan, now it is mostly liberal, thus, proving that satire was ineffective for TrumpÃ¢â¬â¢s campaign. Throughout the course of the campaign, SNL had abundance of material to work with. The numerous interviews, speeches and remarks made it unbelievably easy for SNL to satirize Trump. He was accurately depicted as the narcissist misogynist that he is. According to Baldwin, Ã¢â¬Å"with Trump, we pretty much just re-created what he does, we maybe just put a bit more chili pepper in there to spice it upÃ¢â¬ (McGurk). Baldwin keyed in on TrumpÃ¢â¬â¢s weaknesses and locked in on his sensitivity. Trump is sensitive about how much money he has and how smart he is. Ã¢â¬Å"He constantly mentions that he has gone to the best schools and that he attended Wharton Business SchoolÃ¢â¬ (Balz). The SNL skits were hilarious. One sketch involved a campaign ad entitled, Racists for Donald Trump which was in two parts. The first part showed Middle America praising him and the second part showed the same people elaborating their message with white supremacist labels, clothing and writing. America was entertained, but his right-wing conservative support base dug in and continued to rally for Trump. Trump won the presidency because he was the lesser of two evils. To his support base, Trump represents change, but there is a cost to that change. Ã¢â¬Å"People were fully aware of his lack of values, divisiveness, his bigotry and history of abusing people,Ã¢â¬ but America did not care and it has been at a great cost (Balz). America is ridiculed and no longer the leader of the free world. In 2015, hundreds had protested Donald TrumpÃ¢â¬â¢s appearance on SNL. It was learned that Trump Ã¢â¬Å"vetoed some of the sketches. He did this in order not to anger his support base in IowaÃ¢â¬ who most likely were conservatives (DÃ¢â¬â¢Addario). In response to SNLÃ¢â¬â¢s continued mockery of Trump, he engaged his conservative support base through Twitter, informing them of SNLÃ¢â¬â¢s bias. Unfortunately, SNL allowed Trump to manipulate the scripted opening, as a result, Ã¢â¬Å"the episode was considered among the most sedative in the history of SNLÃ¢â¬ (DÃ¢â¬â¢Addario). SNL took control and parodied Trump the remainder of the campaign on their own terms to no avail. Satire was ineffective due to the fact that Trump vetoed some of the opening remarks. As for Trump being thin skinned, he was extremely sensitive about SNLÃ¢â¬â¢s portrayal of him, so he took the low road and of course, continued to tweet his dislike throughout the campaign. TrumpÃ¢â¬â¢s tweets were key in increasing his support base and this contributed to the failure of satire. As SNL continues to soothe America with Alec BaldwinÃ¢â¬â¢s parody of Trump, Baldwin continues to be Ã¢â¬Å"liberal AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Ëconsoler-in-chief'Ã¢â¬ (McGurk). Ultimately, the political climate has changed and so, satire has to find a more effective way to engage viewers of all comedic media outlets. Satire can be both effective and ineffective, it depends on the climate. Gladwell believes that satire needs to hit hard and make an impact, he wants it to cause social change, but then it would lose humor. Ã¢â¬Å"Satire Paradox tells us that comedians are truth tellers, they zero in on issues we should not ignoreÃ¢â¬ (Gladwell). In the end, Ã¢â¬Å"Satire allows you to say almost anything. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s where the truth is spoken to power in our society. When you sugar-coat a bitter truth with humor, it makes the medicine go downÃ¢â¬ (Gladwell). Works Cited ump won: The insiders tell their story,Ã¢â¬ The Washington Post, November 9, 2016, https://www.washingtonpost.com/graphics/politics/2016-election/how-donald-trump-won-the-inside-story/ Blu, Addison, Ã¢â¬Å"Malcolm Gladwell DoesnÃ¢â¬â¢t Understand Satire,Ã¢â¬ Medium.com, January 17, 2017, https://medium.com/@AddisonBlu/malcolm-gladwell-doesnt-understand-satire-26545a13e509 DÃ¢â¬â¢Addario, Daniel, Ã¢â¬Å"Donald Trump played it safe on Saturday Night Live,Ã¢â¬ Time, November 8, 2015, http://time.com/4103978/donald-trump-saturday-night-live-review/ Esralew, Sarah, Ã¢â¬Å"The Influence of Parodies on Mental Models: Exploring the Tina Fey-Sarah Palin Phenomenon,Ã¢â¬ Communication Quarterly 60, no. 3 (2012), 338Ã¢â¬â352, https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01463373.2012.688791?src=recsys journalCode=rcqu20 Gibson, Charles, Ã¢â¬Å"Charlie Gibson Interviews GOP Vice Presidential Candidate Sarah Palin,Ã¢â¬ ABC News, November 23, 2009, https://abcnews.go.com/Politics/Vote2008/full-transcript-gibson-interviews-sarah-palin/story?id=9159105 Gladwell, Malcom, Ã¢â¬Å"The Satire Paradox,Ã¢â¬ The Revisionist History, August 18, 2016, http://revisionisthistory.com/episodes/10-the-satire-paradox Mazza, Ed, Ã¢â¬Å"Sarah Palin Can Still See Russia, Promises To Keep An Eye On Them,Ã¢â¬ Huffington Post, December 12, 2016, https://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/sarah-palin-russia-joke_us_584e3fe1e4b0e05aded4724f McGurk, Stuart, Ã¢â¬Å"Alec Baldwin: Ã¢â¬ËWhat you see with Trump is how Hitler got elected,'Ã¢â¬ GQ Magazine, October 1, 2018, https://www.gq-magazine.co.uk/article/alec-baldwin-snl-trump-interview How to cite Does Satire Influence Elections?, Papers
Friday, December 6, 2019
Planning within an Organisation Recruitment refers to the process of attracting, screening, and selecting a capable person for a specific job. This short report will look at factors which may affect recruitment within an organisation, different recruitment and selection methods, workforce diversity and the induction process. When attracting talent the approach of organisations can differ entirely depending on certain issues such as: Funding Ã¢â¬â this controls all aspects of advertising from hiring agencies or running an advertisement. Initially the funds also need to be there to accommodate another employee. Culture Ã¢â¬â this will direct any advertisement as the nature of the job or company needs to be present within the job specification and selection method, for example retail roles will focus more on customer service and Ã¢â¬ËpeopleÃ¢â¬â¢ skills. Size Ã¢â¬â the size of company will reflect in the size of the recruitment campaign or process. Research shows that smaller organisation have a lower number in staff turnover. We will write a custom essay sample on Talent Planning Within an Organisation or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page This could be due to smaller companies not having the funds to accommodate regular recruitment so work hard to keep and develop their existing staff skill and abilities. Political Ã¢â¬â political or environmental factors could affect an organisation approach to talent resourcing. With the current economy situation companies are having to hire one person to fill multiple roles or duties opposed to hiring multiple people. This has resulted in redundancies, fewer jobs out there creating more competition amongst job seekers and companies. Encouraging diversity is becoming increasingly important for businesses and society. It carries many benefits. A business must comply with the Equality Act 2010, where for example, nobody should be discriminated against for their race, religion, gender, age or sexuality. So one reason to employ a diverse workforce is simply to comply with the law. Having a diverse workforce with people from different racial, educational and social backgrounds and age groups increases the skills, experience and qualifications spectrum of the workforce. Resulting in new or more creative ideas or ways being brought to the industry, improving production or service. Publisher Malcolm Forbes once said that diversity is the art of thinking independently together. Organisations cant thrive and grow if everyone in them thinks and behaves the same way. Business as well as society has to evolve and adapt to change in order to survive. An organisation with a diverse range of employees is well placed to understand the needs of a wide range of customers. They are also in a good position to recruit and retain staff in an increasingly diverse society continues to expand worldwide. An organisations approach to recruitment and selection procedures depends greatly upon their budgets. Financial budgets influence which path to take for example, hiring an agency or publishing an advertisement or operating and maintaining an online application system. Time management is important as you need to work to a time scale, set a closing date for applications. Communication is needed with recruitment staff and workforce, for example, having an employee who leaving or starting maternity leave, that position needs to be filled before hand to minimise disruption to production or services. This is also again where time management comes into action. Depending on the role different selection methods would be more beneficial. Group work Ã¢â¬â This may be a better to witness how people interact and display people skills, this would suit customer service or retail based roles. Also it saves time compared to one-to Ã¢â¬âone interviews as you can see several people at once and maybe only invite a few back for a more second interview or maybe a key skills test or simply offer the position to. Hiring an agency to fill a position can be quicker and less work for the business as the agency carryout the recruitment process to meet the needs and specification set by the business. The agency is responsible for finding the right person so they are going to send only the best as they want to keep a good reputation. HeadhuntersÃ¢â¬â¢ are useful when trying to fill a more complex role such as an area within engineering as people trained to carry out the specific task may be far fewer. A headhunting company will know who and where to find the right person. They act quickly, carryout negotiations and like an agency want to impress the company they are working on behalf of. Inductions are a type of training given as an initial preparation upon a new employee joining the organisation. It often contains information dealing with the layout of the firm or its hierarchy, health and safety measures and security systems. An introduction to key employees and teams, gives an impression of the organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s culture and can display the attitude and some expectations required of the individual by the company. This is important for both the employer and employee as it sets the tone and boundaries for both parties. If correctly done an effective induction can save time and cost (in terms of faulty products or poor services, etc. ). It is essential that managers place their authority to make sure that the new employee is carefully helped to adjust to the new work surroundings and culture and that integration of the new employee and team is well executed. Studies by the CIPD show that the length of an induction can vary depending on the complexity and culture of the role or company. Also the CIPD state that employees who have a well thought-out induction are more likely to stay with the organisation. Some things in the organisations induction could be as little as where the notice board is or drinks facilities are these are the things that help the employee familiarise themselves with the company and ease them into the team or role. An induction plan is a valuable and vital tool to use throughout the induction process. It allows the company to manage time and budgets better and layout what is expected of the new starter and any other managers or team members involved. The attached induction template is an example how one may be presented. It should contain policies and procedures including health and safety, sickness and holiday leave, salary details, security measures, shift and hours arrangements, dress codes, expectations of the company, pension schemes, targets or goals of the company, training dates and many more topics. Following discussion and understanding of each item a signature from the new starter and trainer should be obtained as evidence of doing so. Resourcing talent can be a lengthy and complex process, following my research it is very clear that no two businesses are the same and from the very start of the process their culture and focus is apparent. Also performing an effective induction is the key to a happy, loyal workforce and doing it properly can be cost and time effective.
Friday, November 29, 2019
Battered Woman Syndrome Defense The Battered Women Syndrome is a series of characteristics in women who are physically and psychologically abused by an important dominant male in their lives. These women learn helplessness and dependency; sometimes these characteristics originate from childhood. According to Dr. Lenore E. Walker, a woman must experience two cycles, before she can be labeled a battered woman. The two cycles are called the cycle of violence. This cycle leads to the feeling that the abuse will never stop. It almost becomes natural. Sometimes the relationships will be calm, and the abuser will apologize for what happened. This part is called the honeymoon cycle, but at other points in the cycle the tension and arguments just soar all the time (divorcenet.12-3-00). After years, the cycle starts to go quicker. At this point, the woman starts to feel trapped, because she would go through these cycles more than once a day. At some, certain point, she will have to act out in what is legally considered self- defense. Stereotypes of battered women will always be around. Many people wonder why dont the wives or girlfriends just get help?, why dont they tell someone?, or just get up and leave. People fail to realize that leaving an abusive relationship can make matters worst. Some cant leave because she is financially dependent or they have children, and/or their mates threaten to kill her and her children or take her children away. A real mother would never leave her children, in any situation. The prosecutors usually always bring up these stereotypes of battered women. In some situations the woman will leave, but staying out is hard for her or he makes it hard for her. Once the woman leaves he will usually do his best to find her and when he does, he threatens her, or may embarrass her, and shell leave with him because of the scene he makes. In addition to all these reasons to why women stay in abusive relationships, is because women lose their self-esteem and eventually dont have the energy to le ave. In order for the Battered Woman Syndrome claim to be used expert testimony is essential. This is needed in order to give matter to the argument that justifies what the woman did. It is also needed because there needs to be an explanation of the Syndrome to juries, in away they can understand. Learned helplessness and other scientific knowledge need to be explained in order for the jury to understand. To understand what the woman is going through, what she was thinking at the time she committed the crime, and that she did it (murder her abuser) it because she honestly felt that it was the only solution in getting the cycle of violence. First, the women must show that she is able to prove either through her own testimony or through the testimony of other witnesses that she is a battered woman. She must then provide proof that the expert who she has chosen is qualified in the field. Some think that the defense based on Battered Woman Syndrome is an insanity defense, because of the exper ts who are brought in to explain the characteristics of the syndrome, psychologists or psychiatrists. Also because the word syndrome is often used to describe mental illnesses. First her husband, now the courts, is what one of the signs read at a march during the third trial of Idalia Mejia in 1978(Gillespie 165). In addition to the violent husband and the courts filled with prosecutors and confused jurors abuse a woman once she has tried to protect herself, but so do the police. Police officers receive little training in dealing with domestic violence cases. The techniques are usually to defuse the situation. Rarely do officers make an arrest. Police departments have what is called stitch rule this is a victim needs to have a certain amount of stitches before officers are required to make an arrest. People always ask the same question, well why did she call for help? When the woman finals builds up the courage to actually call the police for help, they arrive to do nothing for her except maybe make situation worst. The worst part of
Monday, November 25, 2019
Quebec essays Quebec is the largest and oldest province in Canada. Having been found in 1763. The French colonized there in the early 1600s and most of the population today is still French in both language and origin. Quebecs total area is 594,705 square miles. That equals to 15.4% of Canadas total land mass. Quebec is split off into three physiographic regions, the Laurentian Plateau in the north; the Appalachian Highlands in the southeast; and the St.Lawrence Lowlands in the south. On the borders of Quebec is the United States, Ontario, Newfoundland, and New Brunswick. The Laurentian Plateau covers nine tenths of the province. It is a huge plateau slightly inclined towards James and Hudson Bays. Mont DIberville is the highest peak in both Quebec and Labrador, at 5,420 feet. Peaks northwest of Montreal, in Mont Tremblent Park reach 3,900 feet. The plateau has great amounts of minerals, forests, and water resources. The Appalachian Highlands consist of a series of ridges parallel to the south shor e of the St.Lawrence River. Souther Quebecs highest peak, Mont Jacques Cartier rises in the SchickShock Mountains of the Gaspe, at 4,095. The Appalachian Highlands are fertile. There are many rivers in the province of Quebec. Starting from the Great Manicougan River to the Caniapiseau River. In Northern Quebec, water resources are very plentiful, with its thousands of ponds and lakes. The St.Lawrence River is a major passage to the seas for big tankers that runs right through Quebec city. Quebec has big mining businesses. From iron ore to asbestos. They use the St.Lawrence to ship out these materials. Quebec also has big hydro-electrical power plants. They use the rivers, such as the Manicougan to produce electricity for Canada and parts of the United States. On the Manicougan River, there are five or six different hydro-electric dams, with manic five being the biggest self-held dam in the world. ...
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Providing 20% of energy from renewable sources for the Potsdam,Berlin Germany Project - Essay Example The endeavor to provide a percentage of the energy from renewable sources can be triumphant by putting in place, blueprint parameters that require a reduced amount of energy use. Background information The aims of designing buildings that are thermally insulated is basically maintain a contented and sanitized room temperature especially during low temperatures . Fortification against damages from cases of thermal brunt or moisture linked damage which requires very little thermal padding. Energy preservation is the principal intention for thermal insulation as it reduces heating hassle more so during winter thus the environment is also protected. Appropriate solutions or scenarios for the project Contemplation of this aims in PotsdamÃ¢â¬â¢s new buildings is necessary and besides renovating the aged structures to be more energy efficient. To enable the accomplishment of this aims, building materials used should be of stumpy thermal conductivity and the windows put in place of small U -values on the elevation and off-putting thermal bridges and unrestrained infiltration on the other face. In addition to declared rationale, thermal insulation offers a key responsibility, avoiding overheating of edifice during summer by minimizing the transmission of radiation from the sun, engrossed on the buildingÃ¢â¬â¢s peripheral surface, to the buildingÃ¢â¬â¢s interior. ... The altitude of the sun remains low during wintry weather as it rises in the southeast to southwest where as in summer it reaches a higher altitude. To reduce overheating during summer the roof and the west and east wall is designed with minimal glazing since the sun comes out and sets more to the north of east than west (Blij & Muller 2004). To trim down unswerving sunrays on windows to the south, the constructions can be premeditated with roof overhang on the south. This reduces heating anxiety during winter and at the same time plummeting cooling needs during summer thus minimizing energy utilization. The construction resources should also take into deliberation the thermal gathering as a constituent of solar heating. Overheating ought to be abridged throughout the day by using materials with aptitude of captivating heat during the day and releasing heat at night to circumvent temperature drop. Construction parameters of the building envelop should take into concern air tightness and leakage dealings. These can be done via blower doors technology and the principles can be used in air flow and infiltration connected modeling. Building envelop standards ought to be such that there is negligible heat trouncing due to air leakages as this would trim down energy efficiency while abode heating in winter. Conversely, during summer warm air inflow increases cooling anxiety thus more energy use (Craddock 2008). To ensure energy proficient abode, structures in both new-fangled and old Potsdam should be ventilated mechanically so as to maintain indoor air quality. Systems of whole-house aeration using mechanical means include: exhaust, balanced, supply and heat recovery. System choice depends on climate, skilled personnel availability,
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
How to Refinish Hardwood Floors - Research Paper Example Some floors become thin when they have been refinished a lot of times because after numerous refinishing, there is no layer left on it to be removed. So, before refinishing, consider whether your floor is in good condition to sand. 2. Arrange the Equipment. Get a belt sander if you can because it is easier to handle. Drum sander is not only heavier to carry but also it is apt to create grooves on the wood which are hard to remove. An edge sander must also be readily available so as to reach in nooks and corners of the room where a belt sander does not reach easily. Other equipment that you need is a putty knife, scraper, buffer, safety masks, eye protection, brush, and foam applicators. 3. Prepare the floor for sanding by removing all furniture, heat grates, carpets, and old nails. Mop the floor because it must be dust cleaned before sanding. Do not go for wood putty on soft floors because deep gouges and cracks in soft woods would need replacing whole planks. 5. Start sanding from the least noticeable area to get easy with the sander. Concentrate. Place the sander forward and sand along with the floorÃ¢â¬â¢s grain. Start sanding close to the walls, sanding both forwards and backwards. Initial sanding will only remove the layer of old finish. Use the edge sander to reach the areas the belt sander had not reached. A drum sander will have a 20-36 grit paper in it at this point. 6. Sand again, moving in backward, forward, left and right motion. It will remove the scratches that the first sanding left on the floor. This time, a drum sander should have an 80 grit paper. Select an appropriate direction depending upon the look and feel. The edge sander must also have an 80 grit paper in it. 8. Choose a finish. Polyurethane stain which is either water-based or oil-based, or Osmo Hard Wax Oil, is used normally. The finish can be glossy or matte. Satin finish is preferred because it is known to hide the blemishes
Monday, November 18, 2019
Gender identity - Essay Example The paper shall also take into account the role of the media and social stereotypes along with the role that different cultures play in the establishment of gender identities. Gender identity refers to the roles of masculinity or femininity that are assigned to individuals on the basis of certain markers, in a certain society. This may vary from one culture to another and no fixed definition exists in society. These identities change over time as well and not just spatially. For instance the Victorian models of femininity have changed a lot and English women no longer abide by the codes of conduct that women in Jane AustenÃ¢â¬â¢s novels scrupulously followed. This, however, has certain similarities to the conduct expected of women of countries that were colonized by England. Apart from pointing to the fluid nature of gender identities, this phenomenon also points to the fact that gender identities are influenced by a The sexual orientation of a person decides the partner that he or she may wish to enter into sexual intercourse with. The politics of sexual orientation, however, does not end with producing effects on the choice of a partner though. Desire and gender identities are closely linked and both affect the other. Judith Butler talks of this in her work, Undoing Gender, where she talks of how unconventional sexual orientations affect the conventional definitions of masculinity and femininity that are set by the society, thus offering a challenge to the conventional hierarchies in society (Butler, 2003). Both heterosexuality and homosexuality can offer challenges to oppressive heteronormative social setups; however, homosexual orientations have great effectiveness in challenging the social unit that is the most important factor in the perpetuation of heteronormative societies: the family. Homosexual units offer possibilities to the parties involved to redefine the nature of conjugal relatio nships and to restructure the society. How
Saturday, November 16, 2019
Functionalism A Viable Materialist Philosophy Essay In evaluating the validity of Functionalism as a theory of mind, one must first understand the philosophy of Functionalism itself, and its roots. Functionalism has divided philosophers, and presented below are three of the main arguments against the validity of Functionalism, and these will demonstrate that as a theory of mind, although compelling and thought provoking, Functionalism is ultimately not viable. Functionalist theory has evolved from other philosophical theories of the mind, including Identity Theory of Mind, which in its simplest form states that mental states can be said to be exactly identical to brain states, and some forms of Behaviourist Theory, which suggested, amongst other things, that behaviour can be explained or justified without putting any emphasis on the mind as an instigator, and so behaviour can be rationalised by saying that the sources are not internal, but external. Functionalism can be said to be both and extension and a criticism to these theories. It is something of a middle ground between them. Similar to Behaviourist theory, Functionalism classifies mental states using a behavioural structure, but differs from this theory by suggesting that mental states originate internally. In terms of similarity to the Identity Theory of Mind, both agree that the process of producing a mental begins internally, but Functionalism differs in that it differentiates between the definitions of mental states and brain states. In its basic form, Functionalism can be defined as suggesting that mental states are characterised by their causal properties. In other words, instead of defining a mental state by its features, Functionalism suggests that it should be defined by what it does, or by its function. Expanding on this, Functionalism suggests that two thoughts can be considered identical if all relevant inputs, both those garnered internally and externally, can achieve the same eventual output. One of the first forms of Functionalism was created by Hilary Putnam, who, using the Turing Test, demonstrated his theory of Machine State Functionalism. The Turing Test was a proposal by Alan Turing to discover whether machines can imitate human behaviour in a manner satisfactorily enough that they appear to be able to think, and furthermore, Turing suggested that his test might, with more technological advancement, be able to determine if a machine is in fact able to think. Using the Turing Test, Putnam suggesting that any being possessing a mind could be said to be a Turing machine, and could be controlled using a set of instructions for its operation. Furthermore, early Functionalist theories suggested that a person or machine could be controlled by the input of instructions based on the probability of an outcome, and thus the behaviour would be modified according to the most likely outcome. From this, Putnam created his idea of Functionalism which suggested that sentient beings differ from non sentient beings not because of their physical make up, but because of the way that the internal mental states relate to one another causally to form outputs. However, Putnam later rejected his earlier proposals for Functionalism, citing his Twin Earth thought experiment as justification, and, being that he was instrumental in the formation of Functionalist theory, this gives weight to the argument that Functionalism as a philosophy of mind is not viable. The Twin Earth experiment is based around the idea of two identical worlds, except for one thing, that water is has a different name on the twinned earth. As Yemina Ben-Menahem writes in Hilary Putnam, the two people involved, Oscar and Toscar refer to the liquid water as what is familiar to them in their respective environments. Yet the liquidsare in fact very different. (p.236, ll.23-24). What this thought experiment is suggesting therefore, is that Oscar and Toscars thoughts about water are based on their knowledge of it. By extension, this suggests that for a person to have thoughts about water, they must have experienced it, since the brain itself has no such knowledge of water. Thus , some form of external stimulus must have created the knowledge of water in order for the brain to process it. This refutes the idea in Functionalism that mental states are created internally. A criticism of Functionalism, and indeed of all materialist theories, is that it does not account for the complexities of human emotion and feeling. For example, what is missing in the theory of Functionalism is the allowance for subjective, conscious emotion, or qualia. The argument for the existence of qualia is rooted in the idea that some emotions, namely pleasure and pain, cannot be analysed in an objective manner. If the example of pain is taken from a Functionalist standpoint, its only property is that it creates the appropriate output, such as flinching. However, it is difficult to imagine that this is the only component of pain. From the point of view of a Functionalist, pain is not defined in terms of how it makes a person feel, or what it is made of, but rather only in terms of what is input to create the relevant mental state, and what the output of that is. The problem with using qualia as an argument against the validity of Functionalism as theory of mind is that not all philosophers believe that qualia exists. However, if one agrees to the possibility of the existence of qualia, then this argument is valuable. As Edmund Leo Wright argues in The Case for Qualia, human experience can support the existence of qualiaqualia realism should be our default position. (p.286, ll.11-13). Using this standpoint as a basis, two arguments can be levelled against Functionalism and its validity. The first argument builds on Putnams own objection to his theory of Functionalism, and the relationship between cognitive function and experience. The example of colours can be used to illustrate this point. If a person sees red and calls it red, and another person sees it as green but calls it red, the function is identical, but the personal experience is not. Jaegwon Kim demonstrates this in his book, Physicalism or Something Near Enough, where he writes tha t what a colour looks like to a person should make no difference to the primary cognitive function of [their] visual system, (p173, ll. 2-4). In other words, Kim is arguing that the Functionalist approach does not allow for the variety of subjective experience. He goes on to qualify this: Intrinsic qualities of qualia are not functionalisable and therefore are irreducible, and hence causally impotent. (p.173, ll.9-10) If the existence of qualia cannot be reconciled with the theory of Functionalism, as Kim suggests, then the two must be mutually exclusive. If one assumes that qualia exists, as suggested by Wright, then Functionalism is not a viable theory of mind. Clearly, for this argument to be valid, one must first accept the existence of qualia. As such the argument from a qualia standpoint is not sufficient by itself to invalidate Functionalism if the existence of qualia is not proven. Indeed, the theory of Functionalism can be used as an argument against the existence of qualia , and no explanation for either theory has been issued which does not rely upon unknown factors and speculation. Arguing the case for Functionalisms shortfalls in terms of consciousness, Ned Block proposed a thought experiment in which a functioning mind could be created out of an entire Chinese nation. The point of this thought experiment was to illustrate that the theory of Functionalism fails to directly address the issue of consciousness as a condition of a mental state or functioning mind. As explained by Eric S. Chelstrom in Social Phenomenology: Husserl, Intersubjectivity and Collective Intentionality, If consciousness could be defined in only strictly functional terms, it would be possible for the population of China as a whole to realise the functionality of consciousness. (p.55, ll.17-19). If one were to take the Functionalist view on this matter, then this thought experiment should seem entirely plausible, since in keeping with Functionalist views, it does not matter what the mind is made up of, it matters only that functional roles are realised by different parts, as would occur in the Chinese nation scenario. There should be no need, Functionalism would argue, for the mind to be made up of anything specific. Indeed, providing the roles were carried out, it could be made of anything imaginable. As Ned Block points out, the idea of the Chinese nation as a whole having a collective consciousness, and by extension, the suggestion that a conscious mind could be made up of number of functioning parts of any description, although not necessarily impossible, seems absurd to most people, and as such demonstrates a flaw in the argument for Functionalism as a viable theory of mind. As established previously, there are a number of arguments against Functionalism as a viable theory of mind, and these must be taken into account when weighing up whether one agrees or disagrees with them. However, the basis of the theory of Functionalism, that mental states are only defined by their function, is one that is not easily reconcilable with the wealth of human experience. In fact, the idea that human experience is secondary to functioning mental states is somewhat abhorrent, since it is in human nature to want to believe that consciousness is a meaningful phenomenon and not an illusion created by causal functions. Furthermore, in accepting Functionalism in its entirety, one must also accept that that the machine function model suggested by Putnam could also be viable, and furthermore, that conscious beings are not unique and extraordinary, but can be created with any components, provide the equation of input and output is valid. This is a somewhat undesirable situation, and seems ridiculous as it is based in speculation of unknown factors. Ultimately, it can be said that Functionalism is not a viable theory of mind since it requires a suspension of ones experience of behaviour the knowledge of ones own consciousness, and is based almost completely on conjecture. Matravers, D (2011) Mind (A222 Book 5), Milton Keynes, The Open University Ben-Menahem, Y (2005) Hilary Putnam, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press Wright, E (2008) The Case for Qualia, Massachusetts, MIT Press Chelstrom, E (2012) Social Phenomenology: Husserl, Intersubjectivity and Collective Intentionality, Maryland, Lexington Books
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
Technology Enhanced Classrooms The era of The Information Age is upon us as educators to access, explore, utilize, and implement the use of the Internet. as a wonderfully innovative and valuable tool to use in the classroom for the purpose of teaching our students through the exploration of a vast territory of endless information, experiences, interactions, and unlimited ideas known as the Internet. Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a variety of computer and Internet techniques that can be utilized into the Information Age classroom and curriculum as a tool for teaching and learning in modern educational systems. Technology Enhanced Classrooms The era of The Information Age is upon us as educators to access, explore, utilize, and implement the use of the Internet as a wonderfully innovative and valuable tool to use in the classroom for the purpose of teaching our students through the exploration of a vast territory of endless information, experiences, interactions, and unlimited ideas known as the Internet. The purpose of this paper is to present a variety of computer and Internet techniques that can be utilized into the Information Age classroom and curriculum as a tool for teaching and learning in modern educational systems. In order to effectively use the Internet, one needs to grasp basic computer techniques that will enable the transition from traditional classroom practices to that of technology enhanced methods that will be exciting for educators and students alike. As educators endeavor to follow standards, core content, lesson objectives, and the like, we often get caught up in the routine methods of presenting lessons. The Internet offers more data than could ever be obtained... ... continue to be presented concerning Internet skills. Using the Internet to enhance your classroom is a direction that will create an entirely alternate method of teaching. Utilizing the implementation of Internet skills into subject plan will increase the interest atmosphere within the classroom thus resulting in a higher-level of comprehension as a result of students actually being a part of their educational experience. References Barksdale, K. (1999). Internet concepts & activities. Cincinnati: South-Western Educational Publishing. Cashman, T. J. (1995). Learning to use microcomputer applications. Danvers: International Thomson Publishing. Maran, G. (1995). Internet and World Wide Web simplified. Foster City: IDG Books Worldwide, Inc. Weixel, S. (1997). Personal computing essentials. Indianapolis: Labreque Publishing Services.
Monday, November 11, 2019
There are thousands of languages in the world, such as Spanish, French, Chinese, EnglishÃ¢â¬ ¦However, No one can do better job in the second language than their mother language. In the article Amy TanÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Mother TongueÃ¢â¬ , Amy Tan emphasized her idea that we speak different languages unconsciously and we are categorized by the way we talk. The author talked about her mother who is a Chinese emigrant wanted to provide her daughter a better environment to grow up and spoke Ã¢â¬Å"brokenÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"limitedÃ¢â¬ English, but anyway, Amy can still communicate with her mother without obstacles. Throughout the story Amy Tan uses pathos and ethos to tell us that how hard to gap the Asian American culture and still is for Asian Americans to work through the difficulties of the English languages. As a Chinese people having English for the second language, Amy Tan was difficult at times, but still. She overcome all the barriers and succeeds when no one thought she could. Even though that it will be extremely hard for us to succeed in a region that not belongs to us, but still thereÃ¢â¬â¢s an opportunity for everyone to be a king. To be successful, we have to adapt the environment around us and meanwhile make efforts as much as possible. Amy tan uses ethos to prove this point according to her sentence Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m not a scholar of English and literature, I cannot give you much more than personal opinions on the English language and its variations in this country or others. Ã¢â¬ Basically, sheÃ¢â¬â¢s explaining that although she is not a native speaker, she still became an English writer and be succeed somehow. Amy Tan convinced people according to her own accomplishments that no matter where they are from, no matter what mother language they original own, they still have a chance to achieve an honor. People who speak Ã¢â¬Å"brokenÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"limitedÃ¢â¬ languages should be respected. Even though, they could not show their mind perfectly and confused others as well, they tried their best to prove themselves. After all, this is their second language, which need them, make huge efforts getting accustomed to it. In her book, Ã¢â¬Å"Mother TongueÃ¢â¬ , Amy Tan tells us an experience in the ospital when her mother went to the doctor to get the result of CAT scan. The doctor despised her when she was complaining them about losing her scan result. It was not until Amy Tan talked to the doctor that they apologized and cared to solve the problem. Amy was fill with anger when she wrote Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦and apologies for any suffering my mother had gone through for a most regrettable mistake. Ã¢â¬ Amy is insisting that people not taking a person seriously because their Ã¢â¬Å"brokenÃ¢â¬ language can have dangerous consequence. In summary, people should be respected any way even if they cannot use it freely.
Friday, November 8, 2019
Choose the best online nursing degree for you Are you looking to become a nurse? If so, then congratulations- nursing can be an incredibly rewarding career choice, with lots of options and opportunities available depending on what youÃ¢â¬â¢re interested in and where you see your career path heading. Sounds great, right? Sure, but if youÃ¢â¬â¢re at the very beginning of your journey to become a nurse, you likely have a more immediate question- how do I choose a nursing degree program thatÃ¢â¬â¢s right for me?The good news is that itÃ¢â¬â¢s easier than ever to incorporate continuing your education and pursuing a degree with everything else you have going on in your life- the number of high quality online nursing degree programs- which typically offer more convenience and flexibility than traditional nursing degree programs- has exploded in recent years and continues to grow. For some, the hardest part in the face of so many choices is to make the right decision. Fear not- use the following information to choose an online n ursing degree program thatÃ¢â¬â¢s perfect for you.U.S. News World Report recently published an article on how to choose an online nursing bachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s program, which features helpful questions you can ask yourself in order to arrive at the right decision. The following key categories will help you arrive at a choice that makes the most sense for you.RequirementsBefore you make a decision regarding an online nursing degree program, you should know what the basic requirements are for admission- and if you meet them. When youÃ¢â¬â¢re considering a program, make sure you meet the education and accreditation requirements, including relevant completed coursework, experience, testing, and licensure. Programs may vary, so donÃ¢â¬â¢t blindly assume that what works for one program will suffice for all. Bottom line- when youÃ¢â¬â¢re choosing an online nursing degree program, youÃ¢â¬â¢re going to have to do your homework.CostFor most people, this is a key consideration- how much does the program cost to complete? Often, you can find this information online, but sometimes you may have to contact a school/program directly in order to get complete and accurate information. When contacting the school directly you can also learn about what financial aid options might be available to you. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s important that you have the full story regarding what a program will cost for you to finish in order to avoid any surprises later on.LocationAnother important issue is location, which might sound strange considering that weÃ¢â¬â¢re discussing online degree programs. That said, many programs are hybrid (or blended) programs, which consist of both online and classroom-based coursework. This stands to reason, as nursing is a hands-on profession and some topics and skills are best covered in face-to-face classes. When deciding which program you should pursue, make sure that the online vs. in-class aspects of the program make sense for you.TimelineTime- itÃ¢â¬â¢s a p recious commodity that often comes in a too-limited supply in our busy lives. Therefore, you need to make sure that the program you choose to pursue includes options for a complete timeline that makes sense, given your schedule. Some programs are rigid regarding the amount of time you can take to complete all of the required coursework; other programs are more flexible. Make sure that the program you ultimately choose allows you to complete coursework at a pace that works for you.Pursuing an online nursing degree program can be a great career move, but be sure to choose wisely. Use the information provided here to choose a program that meets all of your specific needs.
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Essay on Beyond the Scientific Method Essay on Beyond the Scientific Method CASE STUDY # 1 UNCOVERING THE SOURCE OF A COMA PREPARED BY: ALLANTE WEBB DATE: 9/13/11 CHM 1030.007 The purpose of this case study is to apply the scientific method by making empirical observations, formulating a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, revising the hypothesis, and eventually asserting a theory. LG is a 35 year old woman who came into the emergency room with numerous of symptoms. She had stiff muscles and has shortness of breath. LG was also sweaty and shaky. These symptoms were experienced before she was diagnosed with hypokalemia. In her past medical history it was discovered that she suffers from spina bifida since birth, asthma, a latex allergy, has an ileostomy, and a leg weakness. Because of her leg weakness LG has to use a walker. LG has been suffering from numerous things since birth. When a person has been diagnosed with other diseases or sickness it is common for them to be affected in other ways too. Over time I believe her spina bifida worsened and affected her lungs and made her muscles stiff. The result is bad because her health is more at risk. There was nothing done right or wrong. The disease just spread throughout her body and now is making it hard for her to breath. Even though she has asthma, which is treated with a nebulizer, this does not aide in her breathing. LG also had an ileostomy which is a surgical opening constructed by bringing the end loop of the small intestine out onto the surface of her skin. In order to further support my hypothesis I would ask the patient to present to me her family medical history. This will help in finding a way to solve her symptoms that are now occurring. I would like to find out if spina bifida and or hypokalemia is in her past history. Having the family medical history will help me better understand how this happened to LG and why. I would asses her breathing and muscle strength. This would inform me how fast her bones are stiffening. If spina bifida causes her shortness of breath and stiff muscles then that will explain why she has these symptoms. Hypokalemia is not the diagnosis of LG. I am now going to research both of these diagnoses and see if my hypothesis is proven. Hypokalemia is means that the potassium in the blood is too low. It causes a small elevation in blood pressure and can provoke cardiac arrthythmias. Cardiac arrthymias is when the heartÃ¢â¬â¢s normal rhythm is disrupted. This leads to shortness of breath. Hypokalemia causes muscles cramps, muscle weakness, and also constipation. Urinary loss, low potassium intake, and integument loss are a few causes of hypokalemia. In order to treat hypokalemia it has to be determined how severe the case is. Mild hypokalemia is treated with an oral potassium chloride supplement. Potassium related food is put into the personÃ¢â¬â¢s diet. Severe hypokalemia is treated intravenous with an IV supplementation. When replacing potassium intravenously, infusion via a central line is encouraged to avoid the frequent occurrence of a burning sensation at the site of a peripheral IV, or the rare occurrence of damage to the vein. Spina bifida is a congenital disorder caused by the incomplete closing of the embryo neural tube. There are no clear causes of this disease but researchers believe it could be environmental or genetic. In severe cases the spine and back will swell. The person will have nerve damage that will affect their daily life. The person with spina bifida also develops an allergy to latex. Spina bifida is diagnosed before and after birth. While pregnant a woman can get an ultrasound and have blood work done to see if her child has this defect. She can also undergo a maternal triple or quadruple screen. If the triple or quadruple screen test shows that you have elevated levels of alpha-fetoprotein a neural tube defect in the fetus, such as spina bifida, may be suspected. In this case more detailed tests are done. Spina bifida can be treated by physical
Monday, November 4, 2019
Chinese history final essay based on film to live - Movie Review Example China had conflicts with the USSR with regard to its border. During this period land was freely given to the poor, who engaged in farming. Mao, who had declared to be a Leninist, led discussion on the performance of the party. The educated citizensÃ¢â¬â¢ criticism led him to arrest several people. The educated group was under siege. The Mao led group was branded anti-rightists. The educated citizens were threatened of being denied promotions if they were to persist in their demand for their rights. The poor people in the old china had low status in society given that their high social class counterparts controlled them culturally. The communist group was despised regardless of the affluence of their members. The nationalist group was vibrant and determined to fight the radical communist group. According Yimou, the people in the old China held the subjective feudal autocratic perspective that communism was naturally the only way people could be governed (29). The animosity between t he nationalist and the communists compelled the nationalists to consolidate support from the Taiwan and the US government, to defeat the communist group. In addition, the pre-cultural revolution of China was aimed at challenging the male dominance in Chinese society. Women had no option of deciding their position in society because it is the male who decided everything concerning the lifestyles of the women. The pre-cultural China society was male-dominated given that no woman could become emperor of China during that time. In fact, even the juvenile female Chinese could not be given recognition. The negative effects of civil animosity in China were many. This aspect led to great disparities in the social realm. In this regard, the poor were exploited because of lack of financial power. Democracy was not practiced because the majority was poor; hence, they could not manage to marshal required numbers to oppose the rich. Even the labor unions could not protect the rights of the vulne rable workforce because the industrial leaders were corrupt. However, the oppression of the wealthy became unbearable culminating in reprisals from the workforce, and other groups. They capitalized on politics in their advances. For instance, they used the Communist PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s party to present their grievances to the Authorities. These groups faced oppression of different forms like prejudice and social segregation and discrimination. The emphasis of a class society was also a means of oppression and exploitation, especially in their workplaces (Ã Yimou, 25). The unskilled and the skilled Chinese people were discriminated, and their work was not recognized. On the other hand, women were required to take up only housework and other related domestic chores. Moreover, there arose the aspect of socialism which was also a tool of oppression of the poor. This meant that survival was guaranteed only for the elite. The understanding of the oppressors was that competition was warrante d in order for the social and financially fit people to survive while the poor forever remained in anguish and agony. In this regard, any support for the poor from the government side was highly criticized by the high social class people. This implied that it was the wish of the poor to remain in their low social status. However, the farmers who were also oppressed were discouraged by their fellow Chinese
Saturday, November 2, 2019
Use of Facebook by Non-Profit Agencies - Speech or Presentation Example Using Facebook for professional communication not only improves the efficiency of communications in the organizations but it also encourages it to maximize the impact of its presence within a particular community. According to Waters (2009), non profit organizations can significantly use Facebook and other similar social networking sites to advance their programs and missions. Although possessing a Facebook profile does not necessarily result in an influx of participation, it significantly increases the awareness and improves the relationship between the organization and its stakeholders. This presentation focuses on the various ways through which non profit organizations can effectively use Facebook for their professional communications.... Another important Facebook application that is significantly useful for professional communication for organizations is known as Group or Community pages. By creating Group/Community pages on their Facebook profiles, non profit agencies can enhance the popularity of their services and promote their programs. Christ (2005) argues that organizations can also open up discussion forums using their group pages to obtain suggestions regarded the changes they should make in the provision of their services and products. One of the ways through which our non profit organization can effectively use Facebook as a tool for professional communication is to increase transparency and openness in both our management functions and programs. The recent cases of corruption in various non profit sectors call for these organizations to use social networking sites such as Facebook in their official and professional communications. Consequently this will ensure increased transparency through the provision of a detailed description of the programs and activities of the organization as well as its history on its Facebook official web page. Creating a Facebook webpage can also help our organization to establish a closer relationship with its various stakeholders such as donors, target communities and government agencies (Hill and White, 2000). This is because an official web page at the social network site will improve our message dissemination through the use of the many Facebook applications such as posting of links to important new events in the organization, giving more information on the future causes of the organization as well as posting videos, photographs
Thursday, October 31, 2019
Organisational Behaviour Theories and Modern Learning Organisation - Essay Example Specifically, it offers a wide-ranging tactical support within which abilities, instructing and growth strategies can be placed, thus providing teaching and HRM professionals with a tactic for advertising their products to higher management. Instead of training and capabilities being a bolt-on extra, learning transfers to centre stage and grows to be the principal organisational standard around which business policy and viable gain can be developed. Put plainly, there are said to be 3 different shapes of learning within an association: folks within an organisation learning belongings; organisational learning - where the organisation as a unit begins to develop means in which it can learn lectures in a group; and lastly the learning organisation - where the vital organisational objective is complete learning. The nature of the amendments needed becomes understandable as we look at the five-step prototype of development of a learning organisation submitted by Johnson (2002, pp. 241-249 ). The initial three steps of the model (Foundation, Formation and Prolongation) are taken to characterise a state of organisational learning. Phases 4 and 5 (Renovation and Transfiguration) represent evolution and conversion to becoming an entirely driven learning organisation. Foundation: Essential talents development, plus providing beginners with practices and eagerness to learn further. Basic human resources development plans to stimulate and put up self-belief for advance knowledge. Formation: Organisation promotes and develops skills for self-studying and self-development assists individual discover about the organisation and their position in it. Likelihoods and resources are set aside to meet requirement for learning. Renovation: An absolute transform in the form, look and traits or traditions of the organisation.
Monday, October 28, 2019
Globalization and its Effects Essay Research revelations in (Lardy, 2002, pp. 87-103) hold it that those countries which embraced globalization experienced an average of 5% growth, while those that shunned the concept experienced varied degrees of decline. Regardless of its positive impacts, Globalization if mishandled in one way or another can spell doom to a nation; this is due to the powerful economic vulnerable position that it puts a country on. As the economy grows, and international boarders linked, so does the non-traditional threats of terrorism, heightened rate of the spread of infectious diseases (SARS and HIV/AIDS) and other cross-boarder security issues. Globalization is an irreversible move and every nation has just to content with its effects, there is no short cut out of it; the best way to approach it therefore is to counter its effects and use them to the advantage of a national economy. Upon realizing this fact, the Chinese government went down into reconfiguring their economy to counter any negative outcome of globalization, for instance, it has affected reforms in the domestic banking and created diplomacy in defining international trade to at least protect Chinese interests (Susumu, 1999, p. ). Since globalization rolls the whole world into a single tiny village, the Chinese political big wigs have seen it necessary to consider the diverse effects that have in the past been not prioritized at all like; unregulated capital flows, cybercrime, epidemics, weapon proliferation and international terrorism. Top seed Chinese thinkers even believe that through the international institutions, globalization can be used to democratize t he United States and reduce their unilateralist political power. And if this concept is exploited well, China will grow into a rich and powerful nation, stable enough to shape the New World Order (Susumu, 1999, pp. 5-11). The Chinese economy stands to gain a lot in the current global direction that the nation is set on. With the current financial crisis, it does call for active international coordination to stay afloat and reduce incidences of worker lay offs. It will have mutual benefits for those who dare to fully participate in its drive. By getting to know the measures that other countries have put in place to counter biting effects, China has found a compromise point and forge a way forward through the current economic hard times. If the nation fine tunes its capital market and effects banking reforms, then it will help the world emerge out of the current economic crisis and even those of the future (http://www. unu. edu/unupress/unupbooks/uu11ee/uu11ee0p. htm). Globalization has helped China to gain a significant economic growth through breaking cultural bondage and establishing policies that lead to liberalization in this modern world. With the positivity that the nation has had on globalization, their current economic ranking rose to 7th from 32nd in the world, thanks to the integration with the world economy. The growth is attributed to increased corporate governance and human resource optimization. The positive effects of globalization as given in (Lardy, 2002, pp. 160-219) to the Chinese economy therefore include; strengthening interdependence in all nations, opening opportunities to bring into maximum use foreign capital and technology, promoting free trade that increase export trade. Lardy also gives highlights of the negative impacts presented by globalization, which he says are the following, but not limited to; difficulties in maintaining economic sovereignty especially for the developing nations and widening the rifts between the well industrialized economies and the marginalized ones. Globalization brings into play varied practices hence leading to cultural mix up; this is worse in a society which values originality like the Chinese. Besides these, it also results to an intensified competition for limited resources and higher scale of interdependence. To this effect, each and every person must acquire a way of coping up with the new development and adapt the new practices in the competitive environment. Traditional practices are most likely to be dropped in favor of new rules as individuals cooperate and coordinate with one another. To the Chinese government, they are currently down on what can be referred to as Ã¢â¬Å"system maintenanceÃ¢â¬ . The nation has sought to have a stable relationship with its allies and foes a like as it feels that is the only way to rise above all the odds in the international system. To this effect, it has improved the level of democracy, which has in turn boosted its relationship with former foes like Germany, Russia, E. U and France (Susumu, 1999, pp. 11-15). Such a move will help China to actively participate in multinational institutions and transnational economic structures which will put it in a good position to counter future financial challenges with ease. For whichever government in place, it must strive to establish significant policies that can speed up development in all sectors of the economy. Even though globalization can cause a lot of hardships to the poor, it also opens opportunities to this group of individuals who dare to take advantage and turn the ills to their benefit. Poor people in this context refer to the recipients of public services, simple workers and those who frequently use common property resources to survive. With increased competition, the poor may find it hard to match high quality market standards hence falling out f business as production cost shoots or as the market price fluctuates. Social protection is therefore mandatory to be effected by every state that intends to go the global way, and China is not left out (Bardhan, 2004, pp. 271-278). Globalization affects poverty directly and indirectly, the government in place should get down on programs for instance investing on public facilities like health, education, training and other economic and social infrastructure that will cushion the public from the negative effects of globalization. These steps will go along way in reducing discrimination and market fragmentation in the society. Whilst the quality of life of many people will change for the better, some individuals will definitely lose it out. Globalization will present opportunities for everyone to grab and those who sleep on the idea and strive to maintain the status quo will be on the losing end. Resources drawn from every corner of the world will be made available; the same applies to technological advancement which makes things to be done much faster and easier. But one negative outcome of this is that the introduction of too much mechanization from the outside world will drive people out of employment as companies strive to achieve efficiency and reduce the production cost. But despite the negative effects, if properly affected, globalization stands a chance in ensuring that the nationals have a quality life worth living (Bardhan, 2004, p. 284). The advent of globalization presented so much challenge to the CCP (China Communist Party). People were getting more and more enlightened, especially with issues concerning their civil rights. Revolutions and a little bit isolated cases of political disability were therefore unavoidable and characterized the period. Labor standards became a thorny issue, as workers pushed to have their conditions be the same as those in the U. S. when labor barriers were eliminated production operations shifted directions to the U. S. The strain was not only felt in the labor market, the same was witnessed in the education, political, social and professional sectors which responded to accommodate the changes. All these under the CCP had to be addressed as they developed a force which needed political direction (Ding Lu, 2003, pp. 23-37). But all these moves were out of a good cause as it has helped the country to stay afloat above surging challenges. The future of the move seems to be no different as the party will have to employ the same tactics of changing with the changes. And more complex will be the future non traditional issues on security like; having to deal with separatists, drug traffickers, smugglers, cross-boarder criminal acts, ecological and environmental issues. Conclusion Globalization has been reported to be the force behind the robust economic growth in China as industrialization also took a centre stage in the country. But it is the imbalance in the international systems and national economies that are causing negative effects of the force. The financial crisis is not attributed to globalization and neither will it be the last straw to hit globalization, the government of China and all other world leaders should come up with mechanisms to coordinate the world market to strengthen their resistance to crises. Globalization tries to act like blanket of neutrality over the international capital flow and power relations. The successes that the nation is enjoying now area as a result of ancient liberalization and the move should never be dropped, for it is the only way to keep China and the rest of the world abreast as they ward off economic pitfalls. The programs which are meant to reduce the pathetic situation of the disadvantaged in the society should not only be meant to accelerate economic growth, but also help these individuals.
Saturday, October 26, 2019
Great Expectations by Charles Dickens | Summary and Analysis Charles Dickens wrote his enduringly popular novel, Great Expectations, between December 1860 and September 1861. As was usual for this most prolific of novelists, the book was first published in serial form, and the instalments would be as eagerly awaited as the Ã¢â¬Ësoap operasÃ¢â¬â¢ of today. This novel, however, contains an interesting and informative retrospective by the author on aspects of his life, hidden from even those closest to him, which he had first addressed in the painfully autobiographical David Copperfield some ten years earlier (a difficult decade for Dickens in his personal life) and to some extent alters the perception of himself which Dickens had there vicariously presented. The intricate plot of Great Expectations surrounds the life of an orphaned boy, Pip, who is brought up Ã¢â¬Ëby handÃ¢â¬â¢ by his rather cruel sister and her kindly husband, Joe, the local blacksmith, to whom Pip turns for the only affection available. He sees Joe less as a father-figure than Ã¢â¬Ëa larger species of child, and as no more than my equalÃ¢â¬â¢ and this rather telling reference to Ã¢â¬ËequalityÃ¢â¬â¢ is to be one of the major themes of the book, i.e. Victorian class-consciousness and notions of what constitutes a Ã¢â¬ËgentlemanÃ¢â¬â¢. (One of the reasons Dickens chose, in fact to write the book was to redress the imbalance he felt he had created in the earlier creation of the Ã¢â¬ËgentlemanÃ¢â¬â¢ Copperfield and his snobbery towards the lads with whom he was compelled to work in the factory to which he had been consigned; Dickens had suffered a similar fate as a child and never spoke of it though he never forgot it.). PipÃ¢â¬â¢s encounter at the beginning of the novel, in the graveyard where his parents are buried and from the stones of which he gains his only sense of self, with the terrifying convict, Magwitch, whom he is compelled to help yet for whom he feels compassion, is quickly followed by his being called to Ã¢â¬ËplayÃ¢â¬â¢ by the enigmatically grotesque Miss Havisham, shrouded in her wedding gown and frozen in time as a result of her being jilted, and this juxtaposition has much importance as the plot progresses, clearly foreshadowing the later unravelling of the mystery of PipÃ¢â¬â¢s benefactor. It is at Miss HavishamÃ¢â¬â¢s house that Pip meets and falls instantly in love with her ward, the beautiful and distant Estella, whose name, with its link to Ã¢â¬ËstarÃ¢â¬â¢, is emblematic of both these characteristics. Chiefly because of this fateful meeting and EstellaÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËdisdainÃ¢â¬â¢ of his social class, Pip decides he Ã¢â¬Ëwant[s] to be a gentlemanÃ¢â¬â¢. Th is, significantly, he confides only to Biddy whom Dickens makes clear he should have married but his obsession with Estella obscures his vision on this as so much else, until it is too late. The plot advances significantly when Pip is told, by the sudden arrival of the lawyer, Jaggers, that he is to be the recipient of funds from an unknown benefactor which will make his dream come true and so begins the London phase of his life where he meets the amiable Herbert Pocket and his feckless family, the amusing and shrewd clerk, Wemmick, and re-encounters Estella. Pip is naturally encouraged by both circumstance and history to believe that it is Miss Havisham who is his benefactor but in fact, it is Magwitch, the convict, he helped as a child, who is making him into a gentleman, as he learns when Magwitch suddenly appears, and this dislocation of origins adds to DickensÃ¢â¬â¢ development of the central theme of gentility. In fact, the true gentleman of the book is Joe, as Pip ultimately realises. In Great Expectations, Dickens is attempting to write both a mystery story, influenced by his friend Wilkie CollinsÃ¢â¬â¢ success with the genre, and to examine the nature of what makes a man the object of respect and admiration. By making Pip want to Ã¢â¬Ëclimb the ladderÃ¢â¬â¢ he is investigating the way in which Victorian society operated: more on wealth and station than worth. He was, indeed, ambivalent even about the ending to the novel, wanting at first to have Pip emphatically destined not to marry Estella: I was very glad afterwards to have had the interview; for, in her face and in her voice, and in her touch, she gave me the assurance, that suffering had been stronger than Miss Havishams teaching, and had given her a heart to understand what my heart used to be. Ã Clearly, here, Dickens intends that Pip and Estella should part and the only hopeful resolution is in her apparent change. Nevertheless, the astute author changed his mind because he wanted to please his audience rather than himself, and qualified the certainty of separation in the original by offering at least the possibility of their marriage in his revision: I took her hand in mine, and we went out of the ruined place; and, as the morning mists had risen long ago when I first left the forge, so, the evening mists were rising now, and in all the broad expanse of tranquil light they showed to me, I saw the shadow of no parting from her. The significance of the difference, notwithstanding the employment by the author of one of his favourite words, Ã¢â¬ËshadowÃ¢â¬â¢, is that it is optimistically inconclusive but the disparity between the two endings clearly defines the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s own increasingly embittered view of life. True, the couple depart the Ã¢â¬Ëruined placeÃ¢â¬â¢, an emblem of the wreckage of their shared past, but the Ã¢â¬ËmistsÃ¢â¬â¢ remain to obscure the certainty of unbounded happiness present in the Ã¢â¬Ëtranquil lightÃ¢â¬â¢. Part of the enduring appeal of Great Expectations is to be found in its authorÃ¢â¬â¢s power perpetually to please and the evidence is in this willingness to adapt his own directives to those of his audience. The vivacity of the characters, the twists and turns of the plot and the intensely personal style of the first person narrative all combine to make DickensÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬Ëmystery novelÃ¢â¬â¢ a book which continues to engage fresh generations of readers. Bibliography: Peter Ackroyd, Dickens, (Sinclair Stevenson, London, 1990). Charles Dickens, Great Expectations, (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1993). John Forster, The Life of Charles Dickens in Two Volumes, (J.M. Dent Sons, London, 1966). F. Hopkinson Smith, In Dickenss London, (Charles Scribers Sons, New York, 1916). John Manning, Dickens on Education, (University of Toronto Press, Toronto, 1959). Steven Marcus, Dickens, from Pickwick to Dombey, (Basic Books, New York, 1965). John R. Reed, Dickens and Thackeray: Punishment and Forgiveness, (Ohio University Press, Athens, OH, 1995). Paul Schlicke, Dickens and Popular Entertainment, (Unwin Hyman, London, 1988).
Thursday, October 24, 2019
What Do Children Feel Guilty About? Christopher Williams and Jane Bybee of Northeastern University were interested in discovering the frequency of guilt provoking events in adolescents. They wanted to establish proof for the hypothesis that age-related changes in children were attributed to developmental changes in cognitive reasoning. Past research has indicted that children with high levels of guilt are less delinquent, more compassionate, and more academic excitable children expressing less guilt in similar situations. It has been sited that at its best guilt can bring about the aforementioned but is can also be attributed to depression and obsessive compulsive disorders. In this study, there were 240 participants (123 male and 117 female). they were grouped according to grade. There were 85 fifth graders (40 male and 45 female), 90 eighth graders (44 male and 46 female), and 65 eleventh graders (39 male and 26 female). The subjects evaluated hailed form ethnically diverse neighborhoods of the northeast. The racial breakdown of the participants was as follows: 94 Caucasians, 110 African Americans, and 36 Hispanic. The study was conducted in each of the student_s respective classrooms. The students were prompted to share three instances when they felt guilty. The investigators wanted to know the specific incidences which evoked the guilt and the reason for feeling guilty. The three dimensions under observation were the type of situation which had occurred, the individuals involved, and the specific instances which led to the guilty feelings. There were seven situation parameters for classifying the guilt. They are guilt over transgression, of inaction, of neglect of responsibilities, of anticipation, over failure to attain ideals, of inequity, and not at fault. The second dimension included the individuals contributing the feelings of guilt and the third dimension detailed the possible guilt producing incidents (lying, truancy, property damage, et.) Analysis of collected data indicated that the type of situation evoking guilt varied with age and gender. From the 5th to 11th grades, there was a dramatic increase in the percentage of students reporting guilt from inaction, neglect of responsibilities, and failure to attain ideals. It was also noted that females sited guilt over inaction twice as often as male students. Responses of students in higher grade levels mentioned girl- and boyfriends as the individuals evoking feelings of guilt. In the younger students, parents and siblings had a greater impact of causing guilt feelings. Unsurprisingly to me, the guilt-producing incidences most common to the 8th
Wednesday, October 23, 2019
The impossible trinity Stephen Grenville, 26 November 2011 The impossible trinity doctrine Ã¢â¬â that it is not possible to have a fixed exchange rate, monetary policy autonomy, and open capital markets Ã¢â¬â still holds powerful sway over policymakers and academia. But it does not reflect reality in East Asian emerging countries. Assets in different currencies and different countries are not close substitutes. Capital flows to emerging countries present serious challenges, but the trinity is not the best framework for analysing the policy options.Capital flows are rarely discussed without a genuflection in the direction of the impossible trinity, also known as the trilemma. For example, Magud et al (2011) write: Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ a trinity is always at work. It is not possible to have a fixed (or highly managed) exchange rate, monetary policy autonomy, and open capital markets. Ã¢â¬ According to the trilemma, a stable exchange rate without capital controls requires domestic an d foreign interest rates to be equal. Otherwise, Ã¢â¬Ëuncovered interest arbitrageÃ¢â¬â¢ will force continuous appreciation or depreciation of the currency.As such, nations without capital controls must choose between stabilising the exchange rate (by slaving interest rates to foreign rates) and stabilising the domestic economy (adjusting interests slaved to domestic macro conditions but letting the exchange rate fluctuate). Mechanically, this is enforced Ã¢â¬â according to trilemma logic Ã¢â¬â by substantial capital inflows or outflows and the impact of these on the money supply. Why this doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t fit the East Asia experience Since the 1997Ã¢â¬â98 Asian crisis, East Asian countries have clearly run their own independent monetary policies. Ã They have successfully set interest rates to broadly achieve their inflation objectives. As Figure 1 shows, they are most definitely not all slaving their rates to foreign rates. Figure 1. Despite this, their exchange rates have been fairly stable. They have managed their primary exchange-rate objective Ã¢â¬â leaning against the prevailing appreciation pressures in order to maintain international competitiveness (see Figure 2). Remember that according to the classic trilemma, the similarity in exchange-rate movements since the global crisis should have coincided with identical interest rate levels (all equal to, eg, the US nterest rate); comparing Figures 1 and 2, we see this isnÃ¢â¬â¢t the case. Figure 2. These attempts to restrain appreciation have involved heavy government intervention, resulting in very large increases in foreign-exchange reserves (Figure 3). This didnÃ¢â¬â¢t, however, cause excessive increases in base money (Figure 4), thanks to effective sterilisation by open-market operations and increases in banksÃ¢â¬â¢ required reserves. Figure 3. Foreign-exchange reserves as a share of GDP Figure 4. Growth in foreign-exchange reserves (y-axis) and base money (x-axis), Percent, 2001Ã¢ â¬â07 Why doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t the trinity apply?There are four reasons why the trinity doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t work in East Asia. First, if uncovered interest parity held, markets would treat different currencies as close substitutes. An investor would know that the interest differential would be a good guide to where the exchange rate was heading and even small interest differentials would trigger large arbitrage flows. It is now abundantly clear that interest parity offers feeble guidance for the exchange rateÃ¢â¬âinterest rate nexus (see Engel 1996). The parity condition often gets the direction wrong, let alone the quantity (Cavalo 2006), as it does for six of the seven countries illustrated in Figure 5.Figure 5. Annual average interest differential versus change in exchange rate 2001Ã¢â¬â10 Capital flows responding strongly to interest differentials are the core element in the impossible trinity story. But in practice: * Different currencies are not close substitutes; and * Capital flows are driven by many other forces besides short-term interest differentials. Second, instead of well-formed views on how different currencies will behave over time, there are fluctuating (sometimes wildly fluctuating) assessments of risk attached to cross-currency holdings.The higher interest rates generally available in emerging countries have encouraged carry tradeÃ¢â¬âtype capital inflows, but these were offset by official reserve increases (Figure 6). Figure 6. Net capital flows to emerging countries ($ trillion) Third, the impossible trinity envisages that any intervention to prevent these capital flows from bidding up the exchange rate will be fully reflected in base money increases which will, in turn, thwart the authorityÃ¢â¬â¢s attempts to set interest rates as desired.But this sort of base money-multiplier view of monetary policy no longer corresponds with the way monetary policy works in practice. These days the authorities set the policy interest rate directly v ia announcement, while managing liquidity in the short-term money market through open-market operations, including an effective capacity to sterilise foreign-exchange intervention (Figure 4). In some cases (eg China) excess base money was effectively sterilised through increases in banksÃ¢â¬â¢ required reserves.Thus capital flows do not usually prevent the authorities from setting interest rates according to their objectives. Finally, the impossible trinity envisages that any official intervention in foreign-exchange markets will be taking the exchange rate away from its equilibrium, opening up arbitrage opportunities. But suppose, instead, that the authorities have a better understanding (or longer-term view) of where the equilibrium lies, and are managing the exchange rate to maintain it in a band around the equilibrium.East Asian countries have not, in general, prevented some appreciation of their exchange rates, but they have sought, through intervention, to prevent momentum-d riven overshooting. Is there a useful softer version of the impossible trinity? Even if the impossible trinity in its pure version does not hold, is it still a useful concept in a looser version, as a reminder that there are interconnections and policy constraints between interest rates, exchange rates, and capital flows?Frankel  As they become more closely integrated internationally, foreign investors will increasingly respond to this underlying profitability differential. How can this prospect of sustained higher returns be reconciled with portfolio balance for the foreigners whose initial portfolios are in the lower-return mature economies? This, not the short-term impossible trinity problem, is the policy challenge Conclusion The impossible trinity began as a useful theoretical insight into the nteractions of policy instruments. It is still a useful blackboard reminder that not all policy combinations are possible. The blackboard illustration, however, has been adopted as a d octrinal policy rule. This over-emphasis on a simple thought-experiment may have been because it served to support the arguments for free-floating exchange rates. The argument went like this: capital controls are not workable; if you want to have your own monetary policy, then you have to let your exchange rates float freely.But the impossible trinity was a stylised insight relying on simplified assumptions. The real world was always more complex and nuanced. Of course there is some connection between interest differentials and capital flows. But there are other forces motivating capital flows, and these are much more random and non-optimising than envisaged by the impossible trinity. The fickle changes in risk assessments, mindless herding, and booms and busts in the capital-exporting countries make international capital flows volatile in ways not envisioned in the trinity.AuthorÃ¢â¬â¢s Note: This column is based on Ã¢â¬ËThe Impossible Trinity and Capital Flows in East AsiaÃ¢â ¬â¢, Asian Development Bank Institute Working Paper 318 November 2011. References Aizenman, J, MD Chinn, and H Ito (2009), Ã¢â¬Å"Surfing the Waves of Globalisation: Asia and Financial Globalisation in the Context of the TrilemmaÃ¢â¬ , Asian Development Bank Working Papers No. 180. Cavalo, M (2006), Ã¢â¬Å"Interest Rates, Carry Trades, and Exchange Rate MovementsÃ¢â¬ , FRBSF Economic Newsletter 2006/31.Engel, C (1996), Ã¢â¬Å"The forward discount anomaly and the risk premium: a survey of recent evidenceÃ¢â¬ , Journal of Empirical Finance (32): 305Ã¢â¬â319. Frankel, JA (1999), Ã¢â¬Å"No single currency regime is right for all countries or at all timesÃ¢â¬ , Princeton Essays in International Finance 215. Magud, NE, CMÃ Reinhart and KSÃ Rogoff (2011), Ã¢â¬Å"Capital controls: myth and reality Ã¢â¬â a portfolio balanceÃ¢â¬ , Peterson Institute Working paper 11-7 1 Except, of course, Hong Kong, with its fixed rate. Singapore is a special case, implementing monetary p olicy via the exchange rate rather than interest rates.Its capital market is open; it closely manages its exchange rate; and it has an independent monetary policy, achieving its objective of having one of the lowest inflation rates in the world. 2 Some might see this same argument in terms of growth rates. Interest rates will approximate the economyÃ¢â¬â¢s growth rate (whether measured in real or nominal terms). Thus the higher prospective growth rates of the emerging countries will be accompanied by higher interest rates. 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